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In the Earth year 2063, following First Contact with the Vulcans, several powerful surviving Earth governments merged into an organization called United Earth. Among the first actions taken by this group was to create three organizations for the defense and reconstruction of Earth; the three organizations being, United Earth Starfleet, United Earth Space Probe Agency, and the Military Assault Command Operations. The Military Assault Command Operations, or MACO, was a pure military group created from some of the militaries of the countries that joined the United Earth. There were however several hold outs, citing that not all countries have joined the United Earth and thus were still needed. However in actuality they were fighting to keep their individuality, and history that they have fought so hard during World War III to keep.
In the year 2150 the last independent countries join the United Earth, following this the United Earth forced all remaining earth bound militaries into one of the three organizations. The final independent military organization to disband was the United States Marine Corp, on November 10, 2150 on their three hundred and seventy fifth birthday, the last Commandant General Robert Casey, gave a heartfelt and rousing speech on the Marines new battlefield... space. As with most earth militaries they were absorbed into the United Earth’s three organizations, the majority of the marines that did not retire or resign joined the Military Assault Command Operations. This brought a strong and organized force into the MACO as it was poorly organized and badly managed by the Commander of MACO, General Henry Oliver. As General Casey filed his retirement, he was offered and accepted command of MACO to organize it into a real and able force for Earth.
On December 15, 2150 General Robert Casey officially assumed command of the Military Assault Command Operations. It was as he wrote later in his biography, “One of the biggest clusterfucks of organization he had ever seen.” Since the MACO was formed by joining different military elements, there was great confusion on structure, organization and rank. His first official action was to institute a unified rank structure, the same one still used today. He then created three elements under the MACO to organize it for use.
First is Training and Doctrine Command or TRADOC, next was Special Forces Command, or SOCOM, and then Infantry Command or INCOM. Knowing he was creating a fighting force for a purpose never needed before on Earth, that of combat off the planet, General Casey chose the people to head up these elements well and gave them each a clear and defined directive. For TRADOC, he selected Lieutenant General Derek Cunningham from the former United States Marines, his orders were to create and maintain a training program that would prepare MACO soldiers for combat both on and off Earth. For SOCOM he selected Lieutenant General Bruce McAnders, veteran of the British Special Air Service or SAS, his orders were to work with TRADOC to create a training program for small commando teams to be utilized in areas that large formations couldn’t, then organize the teams. For INCOM, he selected Lieutenant General Andrew Sheppard from the former Australian Army, his orders were to work with TRADOC to create training programs for all needed functions of the MACO INCOM and organize all fighting forces into divisions for deployment.
As Earth was no longer was no longer involved in global conflict, General Casey had to fight hard for the funding and support he needed to get the MACO on track. In March of 2153 the Xindi attacked Earth and ushered in a wave of fear unknown on Earth for decades. The United Earth government passed legislature that empowered both the MACO and Starfleet to expand in order to prevent another attack. Before his departure from for the Delphic Expanse Captain Archer requested a MACO detachment for his ship, which surprised many due to the tense relations and drastic differences between the two organizations. The MACO team dispatched to Enterprise under Major Haynes was a MACO SOCOM team. During the next year until Captain Archer’s return in February of 2154 General Casey reorganized the MACO much like the United States Marine Corp used to be, and perform the same functions. Upon his return from the Delphic Expanse, Captain Archer requested that a MACO detachment remain on his ship and recommended it be standard for all Starfleet vessels that will operate outside Earth controlled space.
In 2154 following the Romulan Marauder Incident, General Casey knew there would be war with the Romulans and began reading the MACO for it. In 2155 Following the foundation of the Coalition of Planets, General Casey took two historic trips. For Six months he was on Vulcan observing and learning from the Vulcan High Command’s Special Forces. General Casey then travelled to Andor as a guest of Commander Shran, with whom we formed a strong friendship with, to observe the training and military capabilities of the Imperial Guard. He watched closely and learned well, taking this information back to Earth to be implemented into MACO training. MACO training now added a strong starship element were as before they were focused on only fixed locations. MACO troops could now act as a second security force on Starfleet ships if requested by Starfleet Command. This training would come to be of great assistance in 2156 when the Romulan Star Empire and the United Earth declared war.
When the war broke out General Casey was quickly recognized as a strategic asset in the United Earth due to the face he has been preparing for this war for several years. MACO detachments became standard on all Starfleet ships and stations that could support them in order to repel Romulan boarding actions, which we found out later was useless because Romulans don’t take prisoners and never once boarded a Starfleet ship, at least not one that ever survived to report it. In 2157, by order of the United Earth government, General Casey was promoted to Field Marshal for his extensive work in fortifying United Earth installations to repel any attempts at invasion; he would be the only MACO to achieve this rank. In 2160 the Earth – Romulan War ended, no United Earth Planet fell to Romulan forces, but the death toll was still extremely high. Marines did not play a significant part in the war because the Romulans never penetrated far enough into Earth Space to encounter them in significant numbers. The largest part marines played were a deterrent to invasion.
In 2161 the United Foundation of Planets was founded and the United Earth Starfleet and Military Assault Command Operations would be absorbed into this new group. Starfleet became a defensive and exploratory organization the MACO was chosen by the Federation Council to remain a purely military force. This was to appease the more militaristic members such as the Andorians and even much of Earth, with fresh memories of the Romulan War and Xindi attack. Field Marshal Casey was selected to be the first Commandant of the newly named Federation Marine Corp, and yes he had a lot to do with the names. They are called the Federation Marines because the Vulcans refused to allow any one organization to hold complete military power, the domination of the Vulcan High Command was a lesson they learned well. Starfleet had the ships were deployed outside of Federation Space whereas the Marines were only a planetside organization and not deployed outside Federation Space except for war. Several other organizations joined the Marines, most notable much of the Andorian Imperial Guard and roughly a regiment of Vulcans from the old Vulcan High Command. The Federation Marine Corp was organized as a peacetime garrison force and as a wartime assault force. Several names were changed due to the expansion of the Corp, TRADOC became TRACOM with the same mission as before, INCOM was disbanded and in its place Forces Command or FORCECOM was created to oversee all Marine forces, and SOCOM was placed under FORCECOM. The last change was the Marines were given roughly a dozen cruiser sized vessels to transport their divisions. They were not armed on level with Starfleet cruisers, and were crewed by Starfleet personal but were under the command of the Marines. In the year 2180 thirty years after taking command of the MACO Field Marshal Casey retired from active service at the age of 75.
In the year 2223 tensions between the Klingon Empire and Federation escalated. All Marines began training against mock Klingon targets and Klingon weapons to be ready to counter the weapons and tactics they would face should war occur. In 2266 tensions and border skirmishes between the Empire and Federation were reaching their peak and the President of the Federation ordered General Roger Zane, the Marine Commandant, to mobilize three divisions to the border colonies to strengthen defenses and prepare them for the impending Klingon Invasion. The Marines knew this war would be fought greatly by them because the Klingons like war and often engaged in ground combat. Shortly after those orders were sent General Zane was called to an emergency session of the Federation Council, the Romulans were back. The starship Enterprise had sent in their report on the destruction of Neutral Zone outposts and encounter with a vessel that could cloak itself from sensors. The Council issued a directive to Zane to mobilize two divisions for deployment to the Neutral Zone to increase defenses and possible war. With the possibility of a two front war General Zane was ordered to have all marines at the highest readiness status.
In the year 2267, the Klingon Empire issued an ultimatum to the Federation, withdraw all forces from contested areas or it would be war. Knowing the Klingons wouldn’t wait, Starfleet and the Marines were put on wartime status even before the Klingon’s war declaration. As Starfleet moved to repel the Klingons from Organia, for the first time since the Earth-Romulan War Marines were on starships. The taskforce’s constitution cruisers each carried a company of marines to defend the ship, board and capture enemy ships, and liberate Organia. Following the Organian Peace Treaty, the marines stood down but under direct orders from the President, were not recalled from deployment.
In 2293 Klingon moon Praxis exploded. The destruction of Praxis removed the Klingon’s ability to make war because it was the key energy production facility in the empire’s war machine. This incident caused a large debate within the Federation and its organizations. Starfleet was split between wanting peace and to conquer the Klingons to keep them from becoming a threat again. While in route to Earth for a peace conference Chancellor Gorkon was assassinated on his ship and Captain Kirk and Doctor McCoy beamed over to help and were taken prisoner when he died. When Captain Kirk and Doctor McCoy were taken prisoner and sent to Rura Penthe, Starfleet and the Marines created ‘Operation Retrieve’ to rescue them. This operation was never launched because President Ra-ghoratreii said the operation would trigger a war. But the plan was for a small task force to breach Klingon space and reach the prison and for Marine Strike Teams to assault the facility and rescue the prisoners.
Following the signing of the Khitomer Accords there was a great deal of heated debate within the Federation, Marines and Starfleet. With the Federation at peace with one of its greatest adversaries several Federation Councilors put forward a motion in the Council to reduce the strength and funding of the Marines and Starfleet. The motion was ended with the huge amount of defense put up and the fact that the Romulans were still a possible threat. However both organizations, Starfleet and the Marines knew that once the Romulans were out of the way this drive to cut back military strength would return and both started making plans.
In the year 2311 one of the most pivotal points in history since the signing of the Khitomer Accords and would leave a mark on the Federations for generations to come, the Tomed Incident. The Federation, Klingon, and Romulan governments were meeting to discuss a treaty on arms limitations, such as the banning of metagenic weapons. Fueled by hated and rage against humanity and in particular Captain John Harriman, Romulan Fleet Admiral Aventeer Vokar drove the Romulan Flagship Tomed through the Neutral Zone toward the Federation listening posts in the Foxtrot Sector, which was one of the key lines of defense against a Romulan Invasion. Upon arrival while still in warp he breached his warpcore, a quantum singularity. The end result was the complete destruction of the Foxtrot sector and all outposts, along with the USS Agamemnon, over five thousand lives lost in total. Also lost was the 15th Marine Division which was stationed there to bolster defenses on the Neutral Zone. In remembrance of their deaths, Commandant Chrystal Rodgers retired the Division, its colors and standards. Following the signing of the Treaty of Algeron and the Romulan Empire withdrawing from the public eye the Federation once again talked about reducing military expenditure.
From 2311 to 2355 the Federation was in a state of peace. During this time the Federation council pushed for less military strength and a return to the roots the Federation was founded on, peaceful exploration and relations with other species. During this time Starfleet began re tasking their ships but saw little loss due to the fact they had peace time applications. The Marine Corp however suffered greatly, it was reduced from 40 operational divisions to 25, and had half of its deployment cruisers mothballed.
In 2355 border wars with the Cardassian Union began. Commandant Shran El’Zenra mobilized 5 divisions to the border for enhanced defenses. However due to the lack of deployment cruisers, once set on a plant it was difficult and time consuming to move the divisions, as a result the Marine were not as able to defend the colonies as they should have been.
In 2357 all Marines were recalled back to their headquarters. The Federation Council once again cut back on military expenditure, and virtually disbanded the Marine Corp. With no force able to challenge Starfleet, and the Marines having not been a decisive force since before the Organian Peace Treaty the Marine Corp was reduced to 10 divisions strategically places at core Federation Worlds, and would have to rely entirely on Starfleet for deployment. Commandant Shran El’Zenra resigned in disgust. The border wars continue until 2367 but Starfleet refuses to bring Marines forward claiming they are fully capable of handling the problem.
In 2367 Starfleet was massacred at Wolf 359 and a Borg cube entered Earth Orbit. The 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions were forced to watch helpless from their headquarters on Luna and Titan. With Starfleet unable to deploy them they could not move to defend Earth. One month after the Battle of Wolf 359 the Federation Council voted to rearm the Marine Corp. For the first time in decades Starfleet was unable to handle an opponent, and the Marines were again needed. The size of the Corp was greatly expanded to 45 operational divisions. General Remona Fitzgerald took command of the Marine Corp with orders to once again make it the Federation’s premier military force. When the Klingon Civil war broke out, the Marines were still rebuilding so they sat out that particular event.
In 2369 tensions rose between the Cardassian Union and Federation. The Marines once again empowered and armed with deployment vessels were mobilized and sent to reinforce the border. Commandant Fitzgerald was confident that the Marines would perform well should war again break out.
In 2370 tensions continued to rise as the Maquis began raiding Cardassian outposts. Marines were sent to garrison some Federation colonies known to support the Maquis to prevent aid to the terrorists. Following the destruction of the USS Odyssey, the Dominion was believed to be the biggest threat to the Federation second only to the Borg.
In 2371 following the capture and release of the USS Defiant the Dominion became the focus of the Federation. After the destruction of the Tal Shiar and Obsidian Order Fleets, the Federation Security Council issued top secret orders to Starfleet Command and the Marine Commandant, to ready the Federation for war. Commandant Fitzgerald passed command to General Isaac Munro and personally took over Training and Doctrine Command to ready the Corp for the brutal war to come.
In 2372 the Klingon Empire withdrew from the Khitomer Accords, ending the peace between them and the Federation. To counter the Klingon’s raids on Federation borders 10 Marine divisions were sent forward to repel any attempts at invasion. There were many minor skirmishes and four large scale engagements, Larta III, Menta IV, Hepta Prime, and Pincila Colony. All four times the Klingon’s were repelled with heavy loses to their forces and minor loses to the Marines.
When Earth was placed under a state of emergency by president Jaresh-Inyo the First and Second Marine Divisions were mobilized for Earth Defense. Captain Sisko, acting head of Earth Security, with the powers granted him by the state of Emergency places the First Marine Division in Paris France at Federation Headquarters and the Second Marine Division in San Francisco at Starfleet Headquarters. Before his arrest, Captain Sisko contacted General Munro and had orders issued to the Division Commanders to move on Sisko’s orders if needed. Luckily the Defiant arrived and Admiral Leyton resigned before the bloodshed escalated. President Jaresh-Inyo lost his faith in Starfleet and ordered General Munro to take over as head of Earth Security. General Remona Fitzgerald resumed her role as Commandant and assigned Forces Command Commander ze’Zeatha as her Deputy Commandant. General Jonathan Wilson, General Fitzgerald’s former Executive Officer, assumed command of Training and Doctrine Command and General Ze’Zeatha’s former Executive Officer, General Robert Simpson assumed command of Forces Command.
In 2373 when the Cardassian Union officially joined the Dominion and Chancellor Gowron re-entered the Klingon Empire into the Khitomer Accords, the Marine divisions deployed along the Klingon boarder were recalled to be rearmed and resupplied for the upcoming conflict with the Dominion. As the Dominion Fleet pushed Starfleet back deep into Federation space President Min Zife placed the Marine Corp on garrison duty on many of the Federation member world, several including Betazed refused this saying it would disrupt their populations.
The Dominion was able to gain a foot hold in the Bolian System in the early throws of the war. They were also able to push into the Vulcan System, attempts to invade one of the outer planets was repulsed by the 24th Marine Division. Following the fight on the surface Starfleet was able to the Dominion back out of the system. Starfleet is able to retake Deep Space Nine.
In 2374 in the Kalandra Sector the Dominion pushed up all their offensive operations and had nearly daily attacks on Starfleet and the Marines stationed on Chudala III, Moreska IV and Zhamur II. This all came to a head when the Dominion attacked and conquered Betazed. All Marine and Starfleet forces had to fall back out of the system to avoid destruction. This was one of the greatest strategic disasters in the war as now the Dominion now had a position to launch attacks into the core of the Federation.
The Dominion launched a second invasion of the Vulcanis Sector, they took hold of three moons on the outer planet, an attempt to invade Vulcan’s moon was repelled by the 17th Marine Division. As this fight was occurring the Dominion launched an invasion of Benzar. The Dominion breached the defense lines and made it to the planet. Despite their best efforts the 23rd Marine Division was unable to repel the invasion, and fought to the last. They inflected massive casualties on the Dominion, destroying 3 Jem’Hadar Divisions and the Cardassian 8th and 12th Orders.
With the success of their attack on Benzar the Dominion attempted to again take Vulcan. Starfleet was able to rout the enemy fleet and the 17th and 24th Marine Divisions retook the outer moons conquered by the Dominion. The Dominion attempted to push farther into the Bolian system but stiff resistance from Starfleet and the 35th and 40th Marine Divisions kept the Dominion at bay.
Starfleet decided it was time to go on the offensive and invaded the Chin’Toka system. The 12th, 18th and 33rd Marine Divisions took part in the landings. Starfleet and Romulan forces forced the Dominion out of the Bolian system, aided by the 40th Marine Division.
In 2375 the Breen joined the Dominion and attacked Earth directly. The entire Breen attack force was destroyed but the damage was done, Earth itself was attacked, the blow to moral was immense. Tragically General Remona Fitzgerald and General ze’Zeatha were killed in the attack; both were posthumously promoted to Field Marshal. General Robert Simpson was made Commandant.
Following the Dominion counterattack in the Chin’Toka system the 12th, 18th and 33rd Marine Divisions were able to evacuate and fall back to Federation Space.
Starfleet mustered a fleet to again attempt to free Betazed. Following a brutal battle in space Starfleet was able to retake the system; the 36th and 42nd Marine Divisions landed and were able to secure the capital in several hours.
Following the Battle of Cardassia the 4th and 7th Marine Divisions were stationed on Cardassia Prime as military garrison. In the aftermath of the war it was decided the Marine Divisions would remain garrisoned on the member worlds due to the Federation’s losses and weakened state.
In late 2379 as the Romulan Star Empire began to fall apart, and 8 Marine Divisions were sent to the Neutral Zone in case of civil war.
In 2380 Field Marshal Robert Simpson retired from service, and Field Marshal Jonathan Wilson was made Commandant.
In 2381 Colonel Kathryn Maxwell was made commander of the 588th Marine Expeditionary Force and begins colonization of the Pinastri Colony. After the wormhole closes the 588th was reorganized into the 1st Marine Delta Quadrant Division.
Authored by: MilesPrower Dagger
- Coalition of Planets - http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Coalition_of_Planets
- Dominion War Sourcebook - http://www.coldnorth.com/memoryicon/spacedock/spacedock.htm
- MACO - http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/MACO
- Romulan War - http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Romulan_war
- Timeline UFP - http://www.ufstarfleet.org/wiki/index.php?title=Timeline_-_United_Federation_of_Planets
- United Earth - http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/United_Earth
- Xindi Incident - http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Xindi_incident