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Pinastri VII is an uninhabited Ringed Gas Giant that is orbited by two moons.
- classification: Class J
- distance from sun: 5.6 AU
- diameter: 100000 km
- gravity: 9.0
- atmosphere: extremely dense, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane
- weather system: heavy storms and lightning
- temp.: -180C to -100C
- surface: heavy gaslayers with extremely high pressures.
- lifeforms: hydrocarbon-based lifeforms
- tech. level: none
- specials: none
History of planet
The atmosphere of Pinastri VII is classified into four layers, by increasing altitude: the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Unlike the Earth's atmosphere, Pinastri VII's lacks a mesosphere. Pinastri VII does not have a solid surface, and the lowest atmospheric layer, the troposphere, smoothly transitions into the planet's fluid interior. This is a result of having temperatures and the pressures well above those of the critical points for hydrogen and helium, meaning that there is no sharp boundary between gas and liquid phases.
Since the lower boundary of the atmosphere is ill-defined, the pressure level of 10 bars, at an altitude of about 90 km below the 1 bar pressure level with a temperature of around 340 K, is commonly treated as the base of the troposphere.In scientific literature, the 1 bar pressure level is usually chosen as a zero point for altitudes—a "surface" of Pinastri VII. As with Pinastri IV, the top atmospheric layer, the exosphere, does not have a well defined upper boundary. The density gradually decreases until it smoothly transitions into the interplanetary medium approximately 5,000 km above the "surface".
The vertical temperature variations in the Jovian atmosphere are similar to those of the atmosphere of Pinastri IV. The temperature of the troposphere decreases with height until it reaches a minimum at the tropopause,which is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. On Pinastri VII, the tropopause is approximately 50 km above the visible clouds (or 1 bar level), where the pressure and temperature are about 0.1 bar and 110 K. In the stratosphere, the temperatures rise to about 200 K at the transition into the thermosphere, at an altitude and pressure of around 320 km and 1 μbar. In the thermosphere, temperatures continue to rise, eventually reaching 1000 K at about 1000 km, where pressure is about 1 nbar.
Pinastri VII's troposphere contains a complicated cloud structure. The visible clouds, located in the pressure range 0.7–1.0 bar, are made of ammonia ice. Below these ammonia ice clouds, clouds made of ammonium hydrosulfide or ammonium sulfide (between 1.5–3 bar) and water (3–7 bar) are thought to exist.There are no methane clouds as the temperatures are too high for it to condense.The water clouds form the densest layer of clouds and have the strongest influence on the dynamics of the atmosphere. This is a result of the higher condensation heat of water and higher water abundance as compared to the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (oxygen is a more abundant chemical element than either nitrogen or sulfur). Various tropospheric (at 0.2 bar) and stratospheric (at 10 mbar) haze layers reside above the main cloud layers. The latter are made from condensed heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or hydrazine, which are generated in the upper stratosphere (1–100 μbar) from methane under the influence of the solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). The methane abundance relative to molecular hydrogen in the stratosphere is about 10−4, while the abundance ratio of other light hydrocarbons, like ethane and acetylene, to molecular hydrogen is about 10−6.
Pinastri VII's thermosphere is located at pressures lower than 1 μbar and demonstrates such phenomena as airglow, polar aurorae and X-ray emissions. Within it lie layers of increased electron and ion density that form the ionosphere. The high temperatures prevalent in the thermosphere (800–1000 K) have not been fully explained yet; existing models predict a temperature no higher than about 400 K. They may be caused by absorption of high-energy solar radiation (UV or X-ray), by heating from the charged particles precipitating from the Jovian magnetosphere, or by dissipation of upward-propagating gravity waves. The thermosphere and exosphere at the poles and at low latitudes emit X-rays. The energetic particles coming from Pinastri VII's magnetosphere create bright auroral ovals, which encircle the poles. Unlike their terrestrial analogs, which appear only during magnetic storms, aurorae are permanent features of Pinastri VII's atmosphere. In the thermosphere was trihydrogen cation (H+3) discovered. This ion emits strongly in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum, at wavelengths between 3 and 5 μm; this is the main cooling mechanism of the thermosphere.